Bishwajit Ghose

Prevalence of child marriage and its impact on fertility outcomes in 34 sub-Saharan African countries.
 
 Abstract  
 
The issue of child marriage is a form of human rights violation among young women mainly in resource-constrained countries. Over the past decades, child marriage has gained attention as a threat to women’s health and autonomy. This study explores the prevalence of child marriage among women aged 20-24 years in sub-Saharan Africa countries and examines the association between child marriage and fertility outcomes. Latest DHS data from 34 sub-Saharan African countries were used in this study. Sixty thousand two hundred and fifteen women aged 20-24 years were included from the surveys conducted 2008-2017. The outcome variables were childbirth within the first year of marriage (early fertility), first preceding birth interval less than 24 months (rapid repeat of childbirth), unintended pregnancy, lifetime pregnancy termination, the use of modern contraceptive methods, lifetime fertility and any childbirth. The main explanatory variable was child marriage (< 18 years) and the associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were examined from the ever-married subsample to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs using binary logistic regression models. In the study population, the overall prevalence of women who experience child marriage was 54.0% while results showed large disparities across sub-Saharan African countries ranging from 16.5 to 81.7%. The prominent countries in child marriage were; Niger (81.7%), Chad (77.9%), Guinea (72.8%), Mali (69.0%) and Nigeria (64.0%). Furthermore, women who experience child marriage were 8.00 times as likely to have ≥3 number of children ever born (lifetime fertility), compared to women married at ≥18 years (OR = 8.00; 95%CI: 7.52, 8.46). Women who experience child marriage were 1.13 times as likely to use modern contraceptive methods, compared to adult marriage women (OR = 1.13; 95%CI: 1.09, 1.19). Those who married before the legal age were 1.27 times as likely to have lifetime terminated pregnancy, compared to women married at ≥18 years (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.20, 1.34). Also women married at < 18 years were more likely to experience childbirth, compared to women married later (OR = 5.83; 95%CI: 5.45, 6.24). However, women married at < 18 years had a reduction in early childbirth and a rapid repeat of childbirth respectively. Implementing policies and programmmes against child marriage would help to prevent adverse outcomes among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, social change programmes on child-marriage would help to reduce child marriage, encourage the use of modern contraceptive, which would minimize lifetime terminated pregnancy and also children ever born.
 



Predictor of sleep difficulty among community dwelling older populations in 2 African settings.
 
 Abstract  
 
Sleep deprivation is a common phenomenon among older population and is commonly linked to behavioral, physiological, and psychosocial factors. Not much is known about sleep deprivation among older population in Africa. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate the basic sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of self-reported sleep deprivation among older population.In this study we analyzed cross-sectional data on 1495 community dwelling men and women aged 50 years and above. Data were collected from the SAGE Well-Being of Older People Study conducted in South Africa and Uganda. Outcome variable was self-reported sleep difficulty last 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify the variables significantly associated with sleep difficulty.The prevalence of mild-moderate sleep difficulty was 32.6% (27.9, 37.6) and severe/extreme 23.0% (20.3, 26.0) respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that sleep difficulty was associated with several behavioral, environment, and illness conditions. In South Africa, those who reported dissatisfaction with living condition had 1.592 [1.087, 2.787] times higher odds of reporting mild/moderate sleep difficulty. Poor subjective quality of life (QoL) was associated with higher odds of severe/extreme sleep difficulties (odds ratios [OR] = 4.590, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.641, 7.977 for South Africa, and OR = 4.461, 95% CI = 2.048 and 9.716 for Uganda). In Uganda, perceived depression was associated with higher odds of severe/extreme (OR = 2.452, 95% CI = 1.073, 5.602) sleep difficulties among men, and both mild/moderate (OR = 1.717; 95% CI = 1.011, 2.914) and severe/extreme sleep difficulties among women (OR = 2.504, 95% CI = 1.408, 4.453).More than half of the participants had sleep difficulty of certain degrees, emphasising an urgent need for intervention for sleep deprivation in the population. Interventions targeting to promote subjective health, quality of life, and living environment may prove beneficial for improving sleep health in this regard.
 


Prevalence and Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence Among Married Women in Egypt.
 
 Abstract  
 
Intimate partner violence (IPV) among married women of childbearing age can significantly enhance their risk of adverse health outcomes such as injury and disability, depression and anxiety, unwanted pregnancies, premature labor, complications with delivery, and perinatal and neonatal mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and individual and societal factors associated with IPV among Egyptian women. Cross-sectional data on 12,205 ever-married women between the ages of 15 to 49 years were collected from the Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). Data from the 2005 and 2014 EDHS were pooled and analyzed. Self-reported responses on violence by husbands were classified into physical, sexual, and emotional violence. The factors of association were quantified using logistic regression methods. The prevalence of experiencing any form of violence among ever-married women in Egypt was 29.4%. Overall, women reported experiencing physical, emotional, and sexual violence at 26.7%, 17.8%, and 4.6%, respectively. Women in the age group of 25 to 29 years had the highest odds (odds ratio [OR] = 1.539, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.327, 1.785]) of suffering from any form of IPV. Women residing in urban areas (OR = 1.149, 95% CI = [1.046, 1.262]), having only a primary-level education (OR = 1.756, 95% CI = [1.543, 1.999]), being followers of Islam (OR = 1.713, 95% CI = [1.379, 2.126]), and having husbands with no education (OR = 1.422, 95% CI = [1.263, 1.601]) reported having higher odds of experiencing any form of IPV. Nearly one third of married women of childbearing age are exposed to IPV of any form in Egypt. IPV intervention programs should pay special attention to the socioeconomically vulnerable segments of the population and promote educational status among men and women to curb the occurrence of IPV.
 

Antenatal visits are positively associated with uptake of tetanus toxoid and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy in Ivory Coast.
 
 Abstract  
 
Malaria and tetanus infections among pregnant women represent two major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Optimum use of Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and immunization against tetanus among pregnant women during antenatal care (ANC) visits are recommended strategies to prevent these issues. Despite these recommendations, many women in Africa remain deprived of these cost-effective and life-saving interventions. In this study, we aimed to examine the prevalence of women using these two services, and the association between women’s uptake of IPTp-SP and tetanus toxoid (TT) with antenatal care use in Ivory Coast. This study was based on the fifth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 5) conducted in Ivory Coast in 2016. Participants were 9583 women aged between 15 and 49 years. Outcomes were TT and Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). Data analysis was conducted using bivariate and multiple logistic regression. In this study, the prevalence of taking TT immunization and IPTp-SP drugs was 81.97 and 17.83% respectively. Of the participants who took these drugs at all, the prevalence of taking adequate doses of TT immunization was 78.75% and that of IPTp-SP was 35.46%. In the multivariable analysis model, higher age groups, 25-29 years (OR = 2.028, 95%CI = 1.120-3.669) were found to be positively associated with uptake of adequate doses of IPTp-SP drugs. Women who attended at least four ANC visits had higher odds of taking IPTp-SP drugs (OR = 1.656, 95%CI = 1.194-2.299) and TT immunization (OR = 2.347, 95%CI = 1.384-3.981), and also had higher odds of receiving adequate doses of IPTp-SP drugs (OR = 3.291, 95%CI = 2.157-5.020) and that of TT immunization (OR = 1.968, 95%CI = 1.398-2.771). The odds of taking IPTp-SP drugs were significantly higher among women with primary (OR = 2.504, 95%CI = 1.020-6.146) and secondary/higher education (OR = 3.298, 95%CI = 1.343-8.097) compared to those with no education. Also, women with higher parity had lower odds of taking TT immunization (OR = 0.218, 95%CI = 0.055-0.858) compared to those with lower parity. Findings from this study also revealed that the odds of taking adequate doses of IPTp-SP drugs were significantly lower among participants from Mandé du Nord ethnicity (OR = 0.378,95%CI = 0.145-0.983) compared to those from other ethnicities. In this study, uptake of IPTp-SP drugs was much lower than TT immunization. High number of ANC visits were found to be significantly associated with taking IPTp-SP drugs and TT immunization and also with that of taking them in adequate doses. Vaccination promotion is necessary to protect pregnant women and reduce adverse health outcomes among the newborn in Ivory Coast.
 


Urban-rural disparity in the utilization of national community-based hypertension monitoring service-results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, 2015.
 
 Abstract  
 
Since 2009, community-based hypertension monitoring service (CBHMS) has been provided free of charge by the Chinese government as part of the national Essential Public Health Services (EPHS) policy. This study aimed to examine the disparity in the utilization of CBHMS between urban and rural community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults with hypertension. Subjects were 3,479 community-residing hypertensive patients, identified from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), 2015, a nationally representative survey of Chinese residents aged 45 years and older. The utilization of CBHMS was defined as having one’s blood pressure (BP) examined at least once a season by community or village doctors. Rates of CBHMS use of urban and rural residents with hypertension were compared by using chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with the utilization of CBHMS of hypertensive patients. CBHMS was significantly more likely to be used by rural than urban middle-aged and older residents with hypertension (38.6% vs. 25.1%,  P  < 0.001). Results from multiple logistic regression analyses showed that urban patients who were living in central (OR = 0.37) and western (OR = 0.48) regions (vs. eastern region), had an educational attainment of middle school (OR = 0.33) and college and above (OR = 0.48) (vs. illiterate), and were not taking antihypertensive agents (OR = 0.26) were less likely to use CBHMS, while rural patients who had no medical insurance (OR = 0.56), and were not taking antihypertensive agents (OR = 0.31) were less likely to use CBHMS. The national CBHMS is more likely to be used by rural middle-aged and older adults with hypertension in China. The urban-rural difference in the utilization of CBHMS may be resulted from the different demographics of urban and rural middle-aged and older residents and uneven distributions of health services resources between urban and rural areas. Urban-rural disparities in characteristics of CBHMS use should be taken into consideration when promoting the utilization of CBHMS in China.
 


Determinants of prenatal care use and HIV testing during pregnancy: a population-based, cross-sectional study of 7080 women of reproductive age in Mozambique.
 
 Abstract  
 
In low-income countries with poor coverage of healthcare services such as Mozambique, antenatal care serves as a vital tool for providing life-saving and cost-effective services for pregnant mothers. Nonetheless, many countries in Africa, including Mozambique, are struggling to attain an optimum level of antenatal care (at least 4 visits) utilisation among pregnant women. In the present study, we aimed to assess the sociodemographic and economic factors associated with antenatal care use in Mozambique. Cross-sectional data from the latest round of Mozambique Demographic and Health Survey (2011) on women aged 15-49 years (n = 7080) were analysed. The outcome measures were early and adequate antenatal visit and HIV tests during the last pregnancy. Data were analysed using descriptive and multivariate regression methods. The predictor variables included various demographic (e.g. age, parity), empowerment (e.g. type of employment, household wealth status) and sociocultural factors (e.g. ethnicity, religion). Of the 7080 women whose data was analyzed, 15.3 and 60.1% had early and adequate ANC visits respectively while 75.4% received HIV test during ANC visits. The odds of early ANC visits were higher [OR = 1.300, 95%CI = 1.062,1.592] among women in the rural areas compared with those in the urban areas. However, participants in rural areas had lower odds [OR = 0.788, 0.687,0.902] of receiving HIV tests during ANC visits. Women in the urban areas with secondary [OR = 1.296, 95%CI = 1.007,1.666] and higher [OR = 1.663, 95%CI = 1.052,2.628] education had higher odds of having early ANC visit. Those in the higher wealth quintiles also had significantly increased odds of using all three types of ANC indicators, particularly for rural women in the highest wealth quintile [OR = 4.776, 95%CI = 1.250,18.24]. Being within the higher wealth quintiles was found to significantly increase the odds of using all three types of ANC indicators, particularly women from rural areas with highest wealth quintile [OR = 4.776, 95%CI = 1.250,18.24]. About two-fifth of the women in Mozambique are not using adequate antenatal care and about and a quarter do not take HIV tests during pregnancy. The sources of low and unequal use of these vital health services might be rooted in women’s socioeconomic status and cultural issues that require special policy and research attention.
 


Intensity, frequency, duration, and volume of physical activity and its association with risk of depression in middle- and older-aged Chinese: Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, 2015.
 
 Abstract  
 
The general benefit of physical activity (PA) to one’s mental health has been widely acknowledged. Nevertheless, the specific type and amount of PA that associates with lower risk of depression in China awaits further investigation. The present study was conducted on middle- and older-aged Chinese population with two objectives: 1) to understand the patterns of PA; 2) to measure the associations between depression and PA at different levels from various aspects. Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2015), we selected 9118 community residents aged 45 years and older. Depressive symptoms were measured by 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CES-D 10). Multivariate logistic regression model was performed to examine the association between risk of depression and PA from four aspects including intensity, frequency, duration, and volume. Spending 1-2 days/week (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.91), less than 30 minutes each time (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.03) or 150-299 min/week (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.87) on Moderate Physical Activity (MPA) was associated with lower odds of depression in women. Spending 3-5 days/week (OR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.05) or 6-7 days/week (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.11), 4 hours and longer each time (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.18, 2.32), 300 min/week or longer (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.24) on Vigorous Physical Activity (VPA) in total, or 2250 Metabolic Equivalent of Task (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.26, 2.38) on Moderate-to-Vigorous PA was associated with higher risk of depression in men. The association between depression and PA depended largely on intensity and gender. Lower frequency, shorter duration, and moderate amount of MPA was associated with lower risk of depression in women. Risk of depression was higher in men who spent higher frequency, longer duration, and overlong time on VPA.
 


Association between intimate partner violence and utilization of facility delivery services in Nigeria: a propensity score matching analysis.
 
 Abstract  
 
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to be associated with poor maternal healthcare utilisation and poor pregnancy outcomes. IPV can be seen both as the cause and result of low socioeconomic status and lack of maternal autonomy that can limit women’s access to resources and motivation necessary for seeking healthcare during pregnancy. This paper aims to study the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and the utilisation of facility delivery services in Nigeria. We applied propensity score matching (PSM) approach to examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and the utilisation of facility delivery services. PSM is a popular strategy for reducing sampling bias through balancing sample characteristics, a technique that mimics randomization on cross-sectional data. Data were collected from Nigeria DHS surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013. IPV was the main explanatory variable of interest for delivery at health facility which was defined as delivering at any health institution including health clinics. PSM generated 20,446 cases distributed into two equal groups i.e. those who delivered at health facility versus those who did not. The prevalence of facility delivery in 2013 was 56.8% (95%CI 55.0-58.6) indicating a moderate increase from its 2008 level of 43.2% (41.4-45.0%). Lifetime prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse was respectively 21.5%(95%CI 20.6, 22.4), 14.9% (14.2, 15.7) and 5.0% (4.6-5.4). In the multivariable analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, ever experiencing emotional abuse was associated increased odds of not delivering at a health facility. (AOR = 1.228, 95%CI, 1.095-1.679). Women experiencing emotional violence are less likely to use institutional delivery services, and hence are susceptible to increased risk of reproductive complications. IPV is a complex issue that needs to be tackled by introducing evidence based strategies contextually relevant to local sociocultural environment. Further studies are required to understand the roots of IPV and the pathways through which it hindrances healthcare utilisation among women.
 


Subjective health and quality of life among elderly people living with chronic multimorbidity and difficulty in activities of daily living in rural South Africa.
 
 Abstract  
 
Background:  South Africa has been experiencing a growing proportion of elderly population with rapid increases in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) characteristic of population aging. Rural areas in South Africa represent a far smaller fraction of the population, however, share a relatively higher burden of NCDs. In the current literature, there is limited evidence on rural studies in the context of chronic diseases and activities of daily living (ADLs) among the elderly population (60 years and above) in South Africa.  Purpose:  In this regard, we undertook the present study with the objective of examining the demographic, behavioral, and socioeconomic predictors of subjective health, depression, and quality of life among elderly men and women living in the rural areas (n=2,627).  Methods:  Data for this study were collected from the Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI). Main explanatory variables were self-reported NCDs and difficulties in ADLs. The predictors of subjective health, depression, and quality of life were assessed using multivariable regression methods.  Results:  We found that the proportion of participants who reported good health, not having depression, and good quality of life was respectively 44.7%, 81.3%, and 63%. Women in the oldest age group (80+ years) were significantly less likely to report good health (OR=0.577, 95% CI=0.420, 0.793) and quality of life (OR=0.709, 95% CI=0.539, 0.933) compared with those in the youngest group. Having more than one chronic condition and ADL difficulties significantly lowered the odds of good health, having no depression, and quality of life among men and women.  Conclusion:  The present findings suggest the involvement of sociodemographic factors in health and quality of life outcomes among elderly South Africans, and call for enhanced efforts to address these health limiting conditions such as ADLs and chronic multimorbidity.
 



Socio-demographic determinants of post-caesarean neonatal mortality in Nigeria.
 
 Abstract  
 
Neonatal mortality remains a major health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based, retrospective analysis of 31,828 births between 2009 and 2013 to explore the relationship between socio-demographic variables and post-caesarean neonatal mortality in Nigeria. We calculated the caesarean section (CS) rates, the odds of having a CS and post-CS neonatal mortality within variable subgroups. The national average CS rate was 2.1%. The CS rate increased with the increasing wealth index, educational attainment, maternal age, higher among urban residents and among those from the Southern part of Nigeria. The odds of experiencing post-CS neonatal mortality was significantly higher in the Northern regions (OR 2.51-3.17) among rural residents (OR 2.63), economically poorer groups (OR 3.68), with no formal education (OR 3.01) and older maternal age groups (OR 1.76-2.0). Efforts to increase the rate and quality of peripartum services delivered to pregnant women are needed among both advantaged and disadvantaged groups.Impact statement What is already known on this subject?  In sub-Saharan Africa, a caesarean section is a lifesaving procedure for both the women and their unborn babies. The neonatal mortalities that occur following the procedure need to be explored and quantified. What do the results of this study add?  Socioeconomic differentials exist in the access to a caesarean section. However, these differentials have a limited influence on neonatal mortality post-caesarean section in Nigeria. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research?  While socio-demographic variables influence access to health care services, timeliness and quality of care are factors to be considered in ensuring societies get the benefits of caesarean section as a lifesaving procedure.
 



Global Inequality in Maternal Health Care Service Utilization: Implications for Sustainable Development Goals.
 
 Abstract  
 
Purpose:  Globally, low-middle-income countries continue to account for almost all of the pregnancy-related mortalities that are largely preventable through adequate utilization of essential maternal health care services such as antenatal care (ANC) and skilled birth assistance (SBA). Promoting the use of ANC and SBA services are hindered by numerous policy- and capacity-related barriers along with widespread inequality in utilization of the existing services that further exacerbates the scenario. In an attempt to better understand the geography of inequality in service utilization, we conducted this brief descriptive study by using World Health Organization (WHO) data on ANC and SBA utilization among the member states.  Methods:  This was a descriptive study based on open access data on ANC and SBA use between 2012 and 2015 available through the Global Health Observatory of WHO. Country-level data were collected for Asia (41 countries), Africa (35 countries), Europe (35 countries), North America (10 countries), Latin America and the Caribbean (25 countries), and Oceania (16 countries). Cross-country and continent comparisons were made using dot and bar charts.  Results:  The overall prevalence of ANC and SBA use were, respectively, 78.17% and 88.33%. Considerable disparities were found in terms of ANC and SBA use across the continents, especially in Asia and Africa. Globally, the poorest performing countries included Afghanistan, Somalia, and South Sudan where more than three-quarters of the women remain deprived of ANC and SBA services during the period of 2012 and 2015. The greatest inequality in ANC use was observed in Africa (9.4% in Somalia and 99.9% in Libya), whereas that of SBA use was observed in Asia (17.8% in Afghanistan vs. 100% in Bahrain). Europe was the most equal of all regions in terms of both ANC (66.8% in Albania vs. 99.7% in Belarus) and SBA (94.4% in Denmark vs. 100% in Lithuania) use.  Conclusion:  Although in the majority of countries more than three-quarters of the women receive ANC and SBA services, the extent of intraregional inequality remains overwhelming especially for Asia and Africa. Progress toward maternal health-related targets should be interpreted in terms of the disparities to ensure a more even and sustainable outcome at both national and global level.
 




Men’s perception of barriers to women’s use and access of skilled pregnancy care in rural Nigeria: a qualitative study.
 
 Abstract  
 
Greater paternal engagement is positively associated with improved access to and utilization of maternal services. Despite evidence that male involvement increased uptake of maternal and child services, studies show that few men are participating in MNCH programs. Community leaders have long been engaged in public health promotion in rural settings and have been shown to mobilize communities to enhance changes in cultural practices related to public health. With the ultimate goal of increasing men’s involvement in maternal health, this study seeks to understand men’s perceptions of community and health systems barriers to maternal access and usage of skilled care in rural Edo, Nigeria. This qualitative study involved the analysis of data collected from community conversations with male elders in Etsako East and Esan South East Local Government Areas of Edo State, Nigeria. Community conversations participants (n = 128) comprised of elders between the ages of 50-101. A total of 9 community conversations were conducted. Discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and imported into Atlas.ti 6.2 for content analysis. Men’s perceptions of barriers to maternal use of skilled care are presented in two overarching themes: community systems and health systems. Three sub themes were generated as community systems barriers to maternal healthcare use, they include: gender roles, traditional treatment and policy changes. Three sub themes emerged under health system barriers and they include: cost of health facilities, dissatisfaction with facilities and distance from facilities. Findings suggest that community elders are not only in a good position to influence men’s behavior, they are also a source of information to policy makers on strategies to overcome barriers to maternal health, especially at the community level. Furthermore, community elders need support to enact regulations that will promote men’s involvement in maternal health, thereby increasing maternal use of skilled care.
 



Engagement in physical activity, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts among older people in five developing countries.
 
 Abstract  
 
Suicide causes rising economic costs and public health risks for communities in the worldwide. Physical activity (PA) is considered a potentially feasible approach to reduce risk of suicide with low cost and high accessibility, and therefore attracting increasing attention. However, current literature on the association between PA and suicidal behavior amongst elderly people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. Therefore, in this study we aimed to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with PA among elderly people in five LMICs. Cross-sectional data were collected from WHO’s Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) with 2,861 participants aged 50 years or above. Variables included: self-reported occurrence of ST and SA during past 12 months and four types of PA (vigorous physical activity (VPA), moderate physical activity (MPA), walking/bike riding, moderate leisure time physical activity (MLPA)). The overall prevalence of taking >75 min of VPA/week, >150 min/week, MLPA and walking/bike riding were, respectively, 85.4% (95% CI [81.3-88.7]), 61.6% (95% CI [52.9-69.6]), 9.6% (95% CI [7.2-12.6]) and 75.1% (95% CI [68.7-80.6]). Respectively, 31.0% (95% CI [24.3-38.7]) and 5.5% (95% CI [3.9-7.5]) of the respondents reported having morbid thoughts and SA during last 12 months. In adjusted multivariable regression analysis, not engaging in PA revealed positive association with higher odds of having morbid thoughts and SA, however, with varying degrees for different types of PA among men and women and across countries. The adjusted odds ratio among elderly who encountered ST increased significantly with PA levels (1.265 in male and 1.509 in female with VPA, 1.292 in male and 1.449 in female with MPA, 1.669 in female with LMPA and 3.039 in women with walk/bike); similarly, with SA (1.526, 1.532, 1.474 and 1.392 in women with VPA, MPA, LMPA and Walk/bike, respectively). The degree of adjusted odds ratio varied between genders and among countries. Although the data were cross-sectional, and no linear dose-response relationship was observed between PA and morbid thought and suicide ideation, the findings provide important indications of potential harmful effects of no/inadequate PA on psychological morbidities among older individuals. Promoting adequate PA among older individuals through community-based suicide prevention programs can potentially contribute to reduction in the burden of PA in LMICs.
 


Exposure to second-hand smoking as a predictor of fetal loss: Egypt Demographic and Health Survey 2014.
 
 Abstract  
 
Exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with elevated risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage and stillbirth. However, little is known regarding the association between passive smoking and birth outcomes. This study aims to measure the prevalence of passive smoking and assess its relationship with adverse birth outcomes. Self-reported birth outcomes (stillbirth/miscarriage/abortion) was the dependent variable that was regressed against self-reported exposure to household smoking along with various individual and community-level factors. We used propensity score matching to identify the sample and used regression analysis to quantify the association between passive smoking and birth outcomes. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to check for the robustness of the associations. Of the 5540 women studied, about half (50.3%, 95% CI=49.3-51.3) reported being exposed to smoking by household members. The prevalence of stillbirth was 14.6% (95% CI=13.9-15.3). In the logistic regression analysis, the confounder-adjusted OR of stillbirth in relation to exposure to smoking was 1.321 (95% CI=1.150-1.517). In the subgroup analysis, we found that the association was significant among certain age groups only. The findings of the present study imply a mildly positive association between the occurrence of stillbirth and exposure to smoking in the household.