Bishwajit Ghose

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    Knowledge about mother-to-child transmission of HIV, its prevention and associated factors among Ethiopian women.

     

      Abstract  

     

    Poor awareness and knowledge of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT),that accounts for over 90% of new HIV infections among children, might contribute to the HIV epidemics. In Ethiopia, 898 400 children are orphaned due to HIV and AIDS and 200 300 were living with HIV in 2013. The main objective of this study was to examine the knowledge of MTCT of HIV, its prevention (PMTCT) and associated factors among Ethiopian women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 16 515 women from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) 2011. Chi-square test, univarate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations of socio-demographic variables with women’s correct knowledge of MTCT and PMTCT, assessed through five specific questions. The overall correct knowledge of Ethiopian women about MTCT and PMTCT (correct answers to all the five questions) was very low (34.9%). In the multivariable analysis, residing in urban area (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.35-1.79;  P  < 0.001), having higher education (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI = 2.74-3.86;  P  < 0.001), belonging to higher wealth household (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.57-2.18;  P  < 0.001), currently in union (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.12-1.39;  P  < 0.001), occupation (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17-1.44;  P  < 0.001) and being exposed to mass media (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.41-1.70;  P  < 0.001) were strongly associated with women’s correct knowledge of MTCT and PMTCT. Strategies to improve the knowledge of MTCT and PMTCT in Ethiopia should focus on rural women, emerging regions, the poor, illiterate and unemployed women. Efforts are also needed to involve religious leaders and related organization in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV.

     




    Disparities in the use of mobile phone for seeking childbirth services among women in the urban areas: Bangladesh Urban Health Survey.

     

     Abstract  

     

    In Bangladesh, similar to its other South Asian counterparts, shortage of health workers along with inadequate infrastructure constitute some of the major obstacles for the equitable provision of reproductive healthcare services, particularly among the marginalized and underserved neighbourhoods. However, given the rapidly expanding broadband communication and mobile phone market in the country, the application of eHealth and mHealth technologies offer a window of opportunities to minimise the impact of socioeconomic barriers and promote the utilization of maternal healthcare services thereby. In the present study we aimed to investigate 1) the prevalence of usage of mobile phones for seeking childbirth services, 2) neighbourhood and socioeconomic disparities in the use, and 3) association between using mobile phones and the uptake of postnatal care among mothers and neonates. Data for the present study came from Bangladesh Urban Health Survey 2013. Study subjects were 9014 married women aged between 15 and 49 years. The overall rate of use of mobile phone was highest in City Corporation non-Slum areas (16.2%) and lowest in City Corporation Slum areas (7.4%). The odds of using mobile for seeking childbirth services were significantly higher among those who were living in non-slum areas, and lower among those who never attended school and lived in poorer households. Results also indicated that women in the slum areas who used mobile phone for childbirth service seeking, were 4.3 times [OR = 4.250;95% CI = 1.856-9.734] more likely to receive postnatal care for themselves, and those from outside the city-corporation areas were 2.7 times [OR = 2.707;95% CI = 1.712-4.279] more likely to receive postnatal care for the newborn. Neighbourhood, educational and economic factors were significantly associated with the mobile phone utilization status among urban women. Promoting access to better education and sustainable income earning should be regarded as an integral part to the expansion of mHealth for maternal healthcare seeking behaviour.

     



    Urban-rural difference in satisfaction with primary healthcare services in Ghana.

     

      Abstract  

     

    Understanding regional variation in patient satisfaction about healthcare systems (PHCs) on the quality of services provided is instrumental to improving quality and developing a patient-centered healthcare system by making it more responsive especially to the cultural aspects of health demands of a population. Reaching to the innovative National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana, surpassing several reforms in healthcare financing has been a milestone. However, the focus of NHIS is on the demand side of healthcare delivery. Studies focusing on the supply side of healthcare delivery, particularly the quality of service as perceived by the consumers are required. A growing number of studies have focused on regional differences of patient satisfaction in developed countries, however little research has been conducted concerning patient satisfaction in resource-poor settings like in Ghana. This study was therefore dedicated to examining the variation in satisfaction across rural and urban women in Ghana. Data for the present study were obtained from the latest demographic and health survey in Ghana (GDHS 2014). Participants were 3576 women aged between 15 and 49 years living in non-institutional settings in Ghana. Summary statistics in percentages was used to present respondents’ demographic, socioeconomic characteristics. Chi-square test was used to find association between urban-rural differentials with socio-economic variables. Multiple logistic regression was performed to measure the association of being satisfied with primary healthcare services with study variables. Model fitness was tested by pseudo R  2 . Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The findings in this study revealed that about 57.1% were satisfied with primary health care services. The urban and rural areas reported 57.6 and 56.6% respectively which showed no statistically significant difference (z = 0.64; p = 0.523; 95%CI: -0.022, 0.043). Bivariate analysis showed that region, highest level of education, wealth index and type of facility were significantly associated with location of residence (urban-rural areas). After adjusting for confounding variables using logistic regression, geographical location became a key factor of satisfaction with primary healthcare services by location of residence. In urban areas, respondents from Greater Accra had 64% increase in the level of satisfaction when compared to those in Western region (OR = 1.64; 95CI: 1.09-2.47), Upper East had 75% increase in satisfaction compared to Western region (OR = 1.75; 95%CI: 1.08-2.84), Northern had an estimated 44% reduction in satisfaction when compared to Western region (OR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.34-0.92). However, rural areas in Central, Volta, Eastern, Ashanti, Brong Aghafo, Northern and Upper West region had 51, 81, 69, 46, 62, 75 and 61% reduction respectively in the level of satisfaction when compared to Western region. Patient satisfaction is an important indicator of health outcomes. Quality of care and measuring level of patient satisfaction has been found to be the most useful tool to predict utilization and compliance. In fact, satisfied patients are more likely than unsatisfied ones to continue using health care services. Our results suggest that policymakers need to better understand the determinants of satisfaction with the health system and how different socio-demographic groups perceive satisfaction with healthcare services so as to address health inequalities between urban and rural areas within the same country.

     




    Awareness and utilization of community clinic services among women in rural areas in Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study.

     

      Abstract  

     

    In recent years, Bangladesh government has accomplished the ambitious project of establishing hospitals 18,000 Community Health Clinics in sub-districts across the country. Operating under the affiliation of the government hospitals, these community health clinics aim to provide free healthcare services and to increase health-awareness among the extreme poor communities in the rural areas. However, a great proportion of the people are still not well aware of the services offered by the community health clinics. Thus, it is imperative to identify the factors of awareness regarding the community clinics. Research-based evidence is necessary to improve the efficacy and service coverage of community clinics among key population. Cross-sectional data of size 11,673 women aged 15 to 49 years living in rural settings across seven divisions were extracted from the latest Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2014. The main outcome measures of our study were awareness and utilization of Community Clinic Services (CCs). Descriptive statistics were used to present the baseline socio-demographic and economic characteristics; Chi-square test and logistic regression were performed to identify the factors associated with awareness of community clinics. About one-third (36.7%) of the women were aware of community clinics. Geographical location, level of education, household wealth status and frequency of reading newspaper were found to be significantly associated with awareness about community clinic services. Services reported to be obtained in the community clinics include family planning, immunization, tetanus, antenatal care, vitamin A, and health care for children and child growth monitoring. In the multivariate logistic regression, the odds of awareness among participants with primary education [p<0.001, AOR = 1.255, 95%CI = 1.107-1.357], secondary qualification [p<0.001, AOR = 1.370, 95%CI = 1.242-1.510] and tertiary [p<0.001, AOR = 1.526, 95%CI = 1.286-1.809] had approximately 23%, 37% and 53% respectively higher odds of awareness when compared to those with no formal education. Compared to the women living in richest households, odds of awareness were approximately 12.5%, 12.8%, 4.5% and 22.4% respectively higher among women reported in poorer, middle, richer and richest household wealth status when compared to poorest wealth status. Our findings suggested that policies enhancing improved education could benefit health awareness. Poverty elimination and income generation programs among women are also likely to improve awareness about community health clinics in the target population. Special policy attention is required to address the regional variation of awareness about Community clinics.

     



    Timing and adequate attendance of antenatal care visits among women in Ethiopia.

     

      Abstract  

     

    Although ANC services are increasingly available to women in low and middle-income countries, their inadequate use persists. This suggests a misalignment between aims of the services and maternal beliefs and circumstances. Owing to the dearth of studies examining the timing and adequacy of content of care, this current study aims to investigate the timing and frequency of ANC visits in Ethiopia. Data was obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) which used a two-stage cluster sampling design to provide estimates for the health and demographic variables of interest for the country. Our study focused on a sample of 10,896 women with history of at least one childbirth event. Percentages of timing and adequacy of ANC visits were conducted across the levels of selected factors. Variables which were associated at 5% significance level were examined in the multivariable logistic regression model for association between timing and frequency of ANC visits and the explanatory variables while controlling for covariates. Furthermore, we presented the approach to estimate marginal effects involving covariate-adjusted logistic regression with corresponding 95%CI of delayed initiation of ANC visits and inadequate ANC attendance. The method used involved predicted probabilities added up to a weighted average showing the covariate distribution in the population. Results indicate that 66.3% of women did not use ANC at first trimester and 22.3% had ANC less than 4 visits. The results of this study were unique in that the association between delayed ANC visits and adequacy of ANC visits were examined using multivariable logistic model and the marginal effects using predicted probabilities. Results revealed that older age interval has higher odds of inadequate ANC visits. More so, type of place of residence was associated with delayed initiation of ANC visits, with rural women having the higher odds of delayed initiation of ANC visits (OR = 1.65; 95%CI: 1.26-2.18). However, rural women had 44% reduction in the odds of having inadequate ANC visits. In addition, multi-parity showed higher odds of delayed initiation of ANC visit when compared to the primigravida (OR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.07-2.69). On the contrary, there was 36% reduction in the odds of multigravida having inadequate ANC visits when compared to the women who were primigravida. There were higher odds of inadequacy in ANC visits among women who engaged in sales/business, agriculture, skilled manual and other jobs when compared to women who currently do not work, after adjusting for covariates. From the predictive margins, assuming the distribution of all covariates remained the same among respondents, but everyone was aged 15-19 years, we would expect 71.8% delayed initiation of ANC visit. If everyone was aged 20-24years, 73.4%; 25-29years, 66.5%; 30-34years, 64.8%; 35-39years, 65.6%; 40-44years, 59.6% and 45-49years, we would expect 70.1% delayed initiation of ANC visit. If instead the distribution of age was as observed and for other covariates remained the same among respondents, but no respondent lived in the rural, we would expect about 61.4% delayed initiation of ANC visit; if however, everyone lived in the rural, and we would expect 71.6% delayed initiation in ANC visit. Model III revealed the predictive margins of all factors examined for delayed initiation for ANC visits, while Model IV presented the predictive marginal effects of the determinants of adequacy of ANC visits. The precise mechanism by which these factors affect ANC visits remain blurred at best. There may be factors on the demand side like the women’s empowerment, financial support of the husband, knowledge of ANC visits in the context of timing, frequency and the expectations of ANC visits might be mediating the effects through the factors found associated in this study. Supply side factors like the quality of ANC services, skilled staff, and geographic location of the health centers also mediate their effects through the highlighted factors. Irrespective of the knowledge about the precise mechanism of action, policy makers could focus on improving women’s empowerment, improving women’s education, reducing wealth inequity and facilitating improved utilization of ANC through modifications on the supply side factors such as geographic location and focus on hard to reach women.

     



    Women’s decision-making autonomy and utilisation of maternal healthcare services: results from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey.

     

      Abstract  

     

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between women’s decision-making power and utilisation of maternal healthcare services (MHS) among Bangladeshi women. This is a nationally representative survey that encompassed Dhaka, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Chittagong, Khulna, Barisal and Sylhet in Bangladesh. Sample households were selected by a two-stage stratification technique. First, 207 clusters in urban areas and 393 in rural areas were selected for 600 enumeration areas with proportional probability. In the second stage, on average 30 households were selected systematically from the enumeration areas. Finally, 17 989 households were selected for the survey of which 96% were interviewed successfully. Cross-sectional data on 4309 non-pregnant women were collected from Bangladesh demographic and health survey 2014. Decision-making status on respondent’s own healthcare, large household purchases, having a say on child’s healthcare and visiting to family or relatives were included in the analysis. Prevalence of at least four antenatal attendance, facility delivery and postnatal check-up were respectively 32.6% (95% CI 31.2 to 34), 40.6% (95% CI 39.13 to 42.07) and 66.3% (95% CI 64.89 to 67.71). Compared with women who could make decisions alone, women in the urban areas who had to decide on their healthcare with husband/partner had 20% (95% CI 0.794 to 1.799) higher odds of attending at least four antenatal visits and those in rural areas had 35% (95% CI 0.464 to 0.897) lower odds of attending at least four antenatal visits. Women in urban and rural areas had respectively 43% (95% CI 0.941 to 2.169) and 28% (95% CI 0.928 to 1.751) higher odds of receiving postnatal check-up when their health decisions were made jointly with their husband/partner. Neither making decisions alone, nor deciding jointly with husband/partner was always positively associated with the utilisation of all three types of MHS. This study concludes that better spousal cooperation on household and health issues could lead to higher utilisation of MHS services.

     



    Socioeconomic Disparities in Smoking Behavior and Early Smoking Initiation Among Men in Malawi.

     

      Abstract  

     

    Tobacco smoking is a growing concern for health care systems as it is projected to become the leading cause of death in the developing world. Knowledge of how smoking behavior differs across socioeconomic groups is crucial for designing effective preventive policies and alleviating the disparities. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of (1) smoking status, (2) early smoking initiation, and (3) association with socioeconomic status (SES) of the 2 among Malawian men. Cross-sectional data on 1693 men aged between 15 and 49 years were collected from the latest 2013-2014 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Malawi. Educational qualification and wealth index quintile were used as the indicators of SES. Outcome variables were smoking status, first age of smoking being below 18 years, and ever using any form of smokeless tobacco products. Multiple logistic regression models were used to see the contribution of SES to smoking status and early smoking initiation. Mean age of the sample population was 33.23 years (SD: 8.25). Prevalence of smoking, early initiation, and ever using any form of smokeless tobacco were, respectively, 46.6%, 33.7%, and 6%. Compared with men who had higher education, those who had no formal education, primary-level, and secondary-level qualification had, respectively, 21% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.209; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.498-2.935), 40% (AOR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.647-3.029), and 26% (AOR = 1.256; 95% CI = 0.593-2.661) higher odds of being a smoker. Those who had no formal education were 2.7 times (AOR = 2.734; 95% CI = 1.123-6.653) as likely to try smoking before reaching 18 years of age. Compared with the richest, those in the lowest wealth quintile had 32% lower odds (AOR = 0.676; 95% CI = 0.455-1.006) of early onset of smoking, 63% lower odds (AOR = 0.372; 95% CI = 0.201-0.690) of trying other tobacco products. Addressing the socioeconomic disparities could play a vital role in delaying early onset and limiting overall consumption of tobacco. Ongoing health policy talks to reduce the prevalence of smoking should take into consideration improving educational and material well-being among men.

     



    Economic burden of malaria inpatients during National Malaria Elimination Programme: estimation of hospitalization cost and its inter-province variation.

     

      Abstract  

     

    Apart from its direct impact on public health and well-being, malaria had placed significant socioeconomic burden on both individuals and whole health systems. This study was conducted to investigate the hospitalization cost of malaria and explore the inter-province variation during the National Malaria Elimination Programme in China. Information on medical expenditure for malaria treatment was extracted from inpatient medical records in Henan, Hainan and Guangxi Province. The costs were adjusted to the price in 2014 and converted to USD (United States Dollars). Non-parametric and parametric methods were employed to estimate hospitalization costs and non-parametric bootstrap method was used for the comparison of hospitalization costs among sample provinces and to estimate the uncertainty of differences in inter-province hospitalization costs. The hospitalization cost and daily cost of 426 malaria inpatients were 929.8 USD and 143.12 USD respectively. The average length of stay was 11.95 days. The highest cost of hospitalization services occurred in tertiary hospitals (956 USD per episode). Whereas the lowest ones occurred in internal departments (424 USD). Medications, laboratory tests and supportive resources for treatment were the most important components of hospitalization costs, respectively responsible for 45.31, 24.70, and 20.09% of the total hospitalization costs. The hospitalization cost per episode in Henan Province was significantly higher than that in Hainan an in Guangxi Province, with incremental costs of 713 USD (95% confidence interval 419.70, 942.50) and of 735.58 USD (95% CI 606.50, 878.00), respectively. The differences in the daily costs between Henan and Hainan along with Guangxi provinces were 75.33 USD (95% CI 40.33, 96.67) and 93.56 USD (95% CI 83.58, 105.28), respectively. Although the prevalence of malaria cases has considerably declined, the direct hospitalization costs of malaria in the household remain high and the inter-province variations need to be seriously considered in the formulation the further interventions regarding hospitalization cost control. This study suggests that economic risk protection mechanisms targeting at malaria inpatients should be redesigned. The drug price addition policy in public hospitals should be gradually reformed or abolished coupling with increasing government subsidies along with the charges for treatment services to reduce the hospitalization cost. The policy for cost control in the provincial hospitals should be implemented in comparison with the policy in other provinces, where the status of economic and geography are similar.

     



    Social participation and perceived depression among elderly population in South Africa.

     

      Abstract  

     

    There is a growing consensus regarding the influence of various psychosocial factors such as degree of social participation on health and disease outcomes, quality of life, and general well-being. Older individuals with diminished motor and physical functionality suffer a heightened risk of social exclusion and loneliness. Previous studies have demonstrated the association between social exclusion and loneliness with mental health among the older population. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether or not difficulty in social participation has any relationship with perceived depression among older individuals in South Africa. We collected cross-sectional data from the SAGE Well-Being of Older People Study 2010 on 422 men and women aged 50 years and above. Perceived depression and loss of interest in things (eg, personal relationships, hobbies) during the last 12 months were used as outcome variables with difficulty in joining community activities, relationships/community participation, friendships, and visiting family/friends as the main explanatory variables. Findings indicated that the prevalence of self-reported depression and the feeling of reduced interest in most things were respectively 51.9% and 43.8%. In the multivariate analysis, those who reported difficulty in joining community activities had respectively 64% (OR =1.639; 95% CI =1.081-2.583) and 69% (OR =1.685; 95% CI) higher odds of depression and loss of interest in things compared with those who did not report any difficulty. The study concludes that addressing the barriers to engaging in community activities may help minimize burden of depression among the elderly population in South Africa. Furthermore, large-scale studies are warranted to explore the social and structural barriers which constrain community participation among the elderly population.

     



    Knowledge of prevention, cause, symptom and practices of malaria among women in Burkina Faso.

     

      Abstract  

     

    Malaria remains a major public health issue in most southern African countries as the disease remains hyper endemic. Burkina Faso continues to face challenges in the treatment of malaria, as the utilization of preventive measures remains low on a national scale. While it has been acknowledged that understanding women’s health-seeking behaviours, perception of malaria and its preventive measures will aid in the control of malaria, there is paucity of information on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among women in the reproductive age of 15-49 years in Burkina Faso. This study investigated women’s knowledge of malaria, attitudes towards malaria, and practices of malaria control in order to create a synergy between community efforts and governmental/non-governmental malaria control interventions in Burkina Faso. The analysis used data from the 2014 Burkina Faso Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS). In total 8111 women aged between 15-49 years were included in the present study. We assessed women’s knowledge about 1) preventive measures, 2) causes and 3) symptoms of malaria, as well as malaria prevention practices for their children and during pregnancy. The socio-demographic characteristics were considered for Age, Religion, Education, Wealth index, Number of household members, Sex of household head, Household possession of radio, TV and Received antenatal care. Data were analyzed using STATA, version 14. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square and logistic regression, with the level of statistical significance set at 95%. A preponderant proportion of respondents were aged 15-29 years (mean age was 28.63±9.41). About three-quarters of the respondents had no formal education. An estimated two-third of the participants were of Islamic faith, while access to media and behavioural communication were generally poor. The level of knowledge was 53% for rural women and 68.2% for urban dwellers. In sum, there was 56.1% level of accurate knowledge of malaria among women in Burkina Faso. In the multivariable logistic regression, women in rural location had 40% reduction in the odds of having accurate knowledge of malaria when compared to urban women (aOR = 0.60; 95%CI: 0.52-0.68). The educational level was a key factor in the knowledge of malaria. The odds of having accurate knowledge of malaria increased as the educational level increased, hence, women with secondary and higher education had 29% and 93% increase in the odds of having accurate knowledge of malaria when compared to the women without formal education. Results indicate that antenatal care (ANC) services were major sources of information on malaria. Women who reportedly received ANC were 3.9 times more likely to have accurate knowledge of malaria when compared to those who did not utilize skilled ANC services (aOR = 3.90; 95%CI = 3.34-4.56). The overall knowledge of malaria prevention practices among a large proportion of women was found to be low, which implies that the knowledge about the prevention of malaria should be improved upon by both urban and rural dwellers. There is need for concerted behavioural communication intervention to improve the knowledge of malaria especially for rural dwellers regarding malaria prevention measures, causes and symptoms. Consistent efforts at providing relevant information by health organizations are needed to reduce and control incidences of malaria in the general public.

     


    Unmet need for contraception and its association with unintended pregnancy in Bangladesh.

     

      Abstract  

     

    Unmet need for contraception and unintended pregnancy are important public health concerns both in developing and developed countries. Previous researches have attempted to study the factors that influence unintended pregnancy. However, the association between unmet need for contraception and unwanted pregnancy is not studied adequately. The aim of the present study was to measure the prevalence of unmet need for contraception and unwanted pregnancy, and to explore the association between these two in a nationally representative sample in Bangladesh. Data for the present study were collected from Bangladesh demographic and health survey conducted in 2011. Participants were 7338 mothers ageing between 13 and 49 years selected from both rural and urban residencies. Planning status of last pregnancy was the main outcome variable and unmet need for contraception was the explanatory variable of primary interest. Cross tabulation, chi-square tests and logistic regression (Generalised estimating equations) methods were used for data analysis. Mean age of the sample population was 25.6 years (SD 6.4). Prevalence of unmet need for contraception was 13.5%, and about 30% of the women described their last pregnancy as unintended. In the adjusted model, the odds of unintended pregnancy were about 16 fold among women who reported facing unmet need for contraception compared to those who did not (95% CI = 11.63-23.79). National rates of unintended pregnancy and of unmet need for contraception remain considerably high and warrant increased policy attention. Findings suggests that programs targeting to reduce unmet need for contraception could contribute to a lower rate of unintended pregnancy in Bangladesh. More in-depth and qualitative studies on the underlying sociocultural causes of unmet need can help develop context specific solutions to unintended pregnancies.